Creating space-efficient solar panels requires cutting the circular wafers (a product of the cylindrical ingots formed through the Czochralski process) into octagonal cells that can be packed closely together.
Such crucibles are used in the Czochralski process to produce oxide single-crystals (such as sapphires) for use in computer memory devices and in solid state lasers.
For semiconductor use, it is further purified with zone melting or single-crystal extraction from a melt (Czochralski process).
Commercially available crystals are grown by the Czochralski process and usually supplied in the form of cuboids or cylinders.
There are advanced refining processes such as the Czochralski process than can achieve impurity levels below the C10100 specification by reducing copper grain density.
Single crystals of lithium niobate can be grown using the Czochralski process.
The differences are related to the growth technique, with earlier flux grown crystals being less pure than current crystals grown with the Czochralski process, which therefore have a larger spontaneous polarization and a higher Curie temperature.
Specific industrial techniques to produce large single crystals (called "boules") include the Czochralski process and the Bridgman technique.
InSb can be grown by solidifying a melt from the liquid state (Czochralski process), or epitaxially by liquid phase epitaxy, hot wall epitaxy or molecular beam epitaxy.
One example where a seed crystal is used to grow large boules or ingots of a single crystal is the semiconductor industry where methods such as the Czochralski process or Bridgman technique are employed.
In the semiconductor industry synthetic boules can be made by a number of methods, such as the Bridgman technique and the Czochralski process, which result in a cylindrical rod of material.
Monocrystalline silicon of such purity is usually produced by the Czochralski process, and is used to produce silicon wafers used in the semiconductor industry, in electronics, and in some high-cost and high-efficiency photovoltaic applications.
This property enables the growth of LSAT single crystals using the Czochralski process (CZ), which has commercial advantages.
Blank eventually built a conventional crystal grower based on the Czochralski process instead.
SiSn can be obtained experimentally using several approaches. For small quantity of Sn in silicon, the Czochralski process is well known.
Langbeinites crystals can be made by the Bridgman technique, Czochralski process or flux technique.
Single crystal ingots (called boules) of materials are grown (crystal growth) using methods such as the Czochralski process or Bridgeman technique.
The single crystals of doped YAG are normally produced by the Czochralski process.
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