This change is consistent with additional evidence from the study of actinopterygians, sharks and lungfish that the digits of tetrapods arose from pre-existing distal radials present in more primitive fish.
Additionally, the term Palaeopterygii ("ancient fins") is sometimes used to group fossil and extant actinopterygians that are neither members of the monophyletic Neopterygii nor the also monophyletic Cladistia.
Bjerring has disputed the common view that bichirs are actinopterygians, mainly because some alleged homologies between the cranial bones of bichirs and actinopterygians are dubious.
It was among the most basal of the Devonian actinopterygians and is considered the first to possess the "standard" dermal cranial bones seen in later actinopterygians.
They form a network of mucus-filled pores in the skin of cartilaginous fish (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) and of basal actinopterygians (bony fishes) such as reedfish, They are associated with and evolved from the mechanosensory lateral line organs of early vertebrates.
Goodrich reported to the British Association the then current state of evidence 'against' "Polypterus" being a crossopterygian, placing it within the palaeoniscids, the most primitive actinopterygians.
Jean-Pierre Lehman (10 August 1914 – 26 February 1981) was a French paleontologist who specialized on tetrapods, particularly the actinopterygians.
Pelvic fin structures can be extremely specialized in actinopterygians.
His research interests were in the anatomy, taxonomy and evolution of fish, particularly actinopterygians, including Devonian palaeoniscids.
Crown group actinopterygians most likely originated near the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary.
The evolutionary relationships of Bobasatraniiformes with other actinopterygians is not well known, but they are usually placed outside of Neopterygii.
Over the years, many other genera of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic early actinopterygians have been referred to Palaeoniscidae due to superficial similarities with the type genus "Palaeoniscum" from the Guadalupian-Lopingian (middle-late Permian) of Europe.
In other words, the Actinopteri include all extant actinopterygians, minus the Polypteridae (bichirs).
This clade, the osteichthyans, splits in two clades: the lobe-finned fishes (sarcopterygians) and the ray-finned fishes (actinopterygians).
"Thoracopterus" represents the earliest known example for overwater gliding in actinopterygians.
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