Males are more likely to be color blind than females, because the genes responsible for the most common forms of color blindness are on the X chromosome.
In 2017, a study of mitochondrial DNA, X-chromosome (maternal lineage) markers and Y-chromosome (male lineage) markers found that the Himalayan wolf was genetically basal to the Holarctic grey wolf and has an association with the African golden wolf.
A Barr body (named after discoverer Murray Barr) or X-chromatin is an inactive X chromosome.
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a disease linked to the X chromosome.
A genetic male conceived by a man with AIS would not receive his father's X chromosome, thus would neither inherit nor carry the gene for the syndrome.
In XY mice, lack of the gene DAX1 on the X chromosome results in sterility, but in humans it causes adrenal hypoplasia congenita.
filling all the gaps in the X chromosome (2020) and the 22 autosomes (May 2021).
Screening for those X chromosome aneuploidies was possible by noting the presence or absence of "female" sex chromatin bodies (Barr bodies) in the nuclei of interphase cells in buccal smears, a technique developed a decade "before" the first reported sex chromosome aneuploidy.
They stated that in contrast to linkage studies that found substantial association of sexual orientation with variants on the X-chromosome, they found no excess of signal (and no individual genome-wide significant variants) on Xq28 or the rest of the X chromosome.
In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing an X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a male (XY) offspring.
The study presented the genetic evidence that the red wolf is a separate species, based on the structure of one of the loci of its X-chromosome which is accepted as a marker for distinct species.
The genes encoding MAO-A and MAO-B are located side-by-side on the short arm of the X chromosome, and have about 70% sequence similarity.
The gene for the yellow body lies on the X-chromosome.
According to this hypothesis, one reason for why the average lifespan of males isn't as long as that of females––by 18% on average, according to the study––is that they have a Y chromosome which can't protect an individual from harmful genes expressed on the X chromosome, while a duplicate X chromosome, as present in female organisms, can ensure harmful genes aren't expressed.
When segregation distortion acts on sex chromosomes, they can skew the sex ratio.
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